CHAPTER 3

Modems, Routers and Cellular

Your internet connection has a significant impact on the many different types of connections we have provided you need to know to make informed decisions.

 

Types of Internet connections

These types of internet connections may also affect the speed and functionality of your internet service. Some ISPs provide only one or two of these types of internet connections, so you will need to understand the pros and cons for each connection method.

Dial

Dial-ups were once the most common type of internet connection, although for now, most have been removed. Dial internet access through your phone line. You must use a modem and dial extremely slowly.

ADLS-DSL

Digital subscriber line (DSL) allows you to use both the internet and your phone at the same time. DSL is very common in cities, but you find it less in rural areas

 

Cable

With a cable connection, your computer accesses the internet through a cable connection, instead of relying on your phone line. This means you can use both the internet and your phone at the same time and turn the cable into a popular internet connection option.

 

Fiber

Fiber optic connections are quickly becoming popular, because fiber optic cables are significantly faster than other internet connections.

 

WIFI

Wireless broadband connection, also known as WiFi, uses a wired connection to broadcast radio between devices. This creates a high speed connection and is used to create WiFi hotspots.

 

LTE mobile connectivity: 2G, 3G, 4G, 5G

(1) Generation 2G

2G refers to the second generation of mobile networks based on GSM. The radio signals used by 1G networks are similar, while 2G networks are digital. 2G capability has been achieved by allowing multiple users on one channel through multiplexing. In 2G technology, mobile phones have been used to transmit data along with voice. Some of the key features of 2G are:

- Data rates up to 64 kbps

- Use analog signals instead of analog signals

- Activated services such as SMS and MMS (Multimedia Messaging)

- Provide better quality voice calls

- It uses bandwidth of 30 to 200 KHz

(2) 3G technology

The 3G standard uses the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) as its core network architecture. 3G networks combine aspects of 2G networks with new technologies and protocols to provide significantly faster data rates. By using packet switching, the original technology has been improved to allow speeds of up to 14 Mbps. It uses the Wide Band wireless network to increase clarity. It operates in the band 2100 MHz and has a bandwidth of 15-20 MHz. Some key features of 3G are:

-Speed ​​up to 2 Mbps

-Increase bandwidth and data transfer rate

Send / receive large email messages

Large volume and broadband capability

IMT-2000 is an International Telecommunication Union specification for 3G networks. Theoretically the maximum achievable speed is 21.6 Mbps - HSPA +

(3) 4G technology

The main difference between 3G and 4G is the data rate. There is also a huge difference between 3G and 4G technology. The main technologies that have created 4G are MIMO (Multiple Inputs) and OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Multiplexing). The most important 4G standards are WiMAX and LTE. Although 4G LTE is a huge improvement over 3G speed, it is technically not 4G. What is the difference between 4G and LTE?

Even after being widely available, many networks do not reach the required 4G speeds. 4G LTE is a fourth-generation long-term development, capable of providing very fast and secure internet connection. Basically, 4G is a predefined standard for mobile network connections. 4G LTE is the term given for the path to be followed in order to achieve previously defined standards. Some features of 4G LTE are:

- Support interactive multimedia, voice, video

High speed, high capacity and low cost per bit (Speed ​​up to 20 Mbps or more)

- Mobile network is global and scalable

(4) 5G technology

- 5G using the millimeter band is rarely used in the 30 GHz to 300 GHz range. Testing the 5G range in mmWave led to about 500 meters from the tower.

- Using small cells, carriers using millimeter waves to deploy 5G can improve the overall coverage. Combined with Beamforming, small cells can provide extremely fast coverage with low latency.

- Low latency is one of the most important features of 5G.

- 5G uses scalable orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) framework. 5G benefits greatly from this and can be as low as a millisecond with an estimated reality of 1 - 10 seconds.

- 5G is estimated to be 60 to 120 times faster than average 4G latency.

- With speeds up to 10 Gbps, 5G is set at speeds 10 times faster than 4G.

 

The use of wireless router

The wireless router gives you flexibility in how you use the internet indoors. You can connect multiple devices, like your laptop, phone and tablet to the internet at the same time. Wireless routers are great, but their functionality may be affected by several factors:

Distance - The further away you are from the router, the weaker the connection.

Obstacles - If there are walls or other objects blocking the path from the router to your device, your Wi-Fi range may be shortened. If you are two or three rooms away from your router, many walls can shorten the Wi-Fi range to the point where you can connect to the internet.

Radio Frequency Interference - If you've ever used the internet just to have a sudden slow speed when someone turned on the microwave, you've got radio frequency interference. Because your router uses radio waves to send and receive data, everything else in the environment also creates or uses radio waves - like your microwave - that can interfere with your router and speed. your internet.

 

Router speed is measured in megabits per second (Mbps); The higher the rating, the faster the router. You'll find routers with speeds from 54 Mbps to high-performance routers with speeds greater than 1 Gbps (1,000 Mbps)